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2018年各行业职场趋势

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Leadership
领导层
In 2018, more business leaders will channel a potent combination of digitalisation, generational change and growing diversity, to streamline their hierarchies, distribute responsibility, and transform their organisations.
2018年,将会有更多商业领袖利用数字化、代际变动和多元化不断提高的强大结合,来精简企业层级结构,分配责任,转变他们所在的组织。
Leaders of large companies such as Michelin, Microsoft, Ericsson and others are already pushing more decision-making power out to their front-line workers. Others will follow as the success of this approach catches on.
米其林(Michelin)、微软(Microsoft)、爱立信(Ericsson)等大企业的领导人已经把更多的决策权推向一线员工。随着这种方法的成功引起注意,其他企业将效仿。
Aspiring young leaders already place more emphasis on using their influence, rather than trying to exert power through the embedded authority of their position or their assigned title. Many are already gaining leadership experience, not through promotion at established institutions but by running bottom-up movements and voluntary groups, or by shaping their own start-ups.
有抱负的年轻领导人已经更注重利用自己的影响力,而不是试图凭借其职位或头衔所带来的权威来发号施令。很多人已经拥有了领导经验——不是通过在老牌机构中的晋升,而是通过领导自下而上的运动和志愿组织、或是打造自己的初创公司。
I expect more companies to develop leaders who know how to manage networks — not just the traditional internal network of employees, but more loosely connected webs of suppliers and contractors, managed remotely via the internet and social media.
我预计,将有更多公司培养懂得如何管理网络的领导人——不只是传统的内部员工网,还包括联系更松散的供应商和承包商网络,通过互联网和社交媒体进行远程管理。
That will require different skills — notably a clearer vision among leaders of their organisation’s shared purpose. The dilemma of how to lead “teams” of robots and humans will become even more pressing this year.
这需要领导人具备不同的技能——尤其需要领导人对组织的共同目标具有更清晰的视野。在新的一年,如何领导由机器人和人类组成的“团队”的困境将变得更为紧迫。
I do not see much evidence that radical “managerless” models such as “Holacracy” will catch on. But more companies will realise that if they constantly test innovative ways forward — as start-ups do — they will be more flexible and decisive than old-style bureaucracies and meritocracies.
我没有看到太多迹象表明,“合弄制”(Holacracy)等激进的“无管理者”模式将会普及。但会有越来越多的公司意识到,如果他们不断地尝试创新——就像初创公司那样——他们将比老派的官僚制度和精英管理制度更加灵活和果断。
When it comes to diversity, I am optimistic that at some point the rise of enlightened younger executives will trigger a sudden change of attitude in the boardroom. This will not happen in 2018, though the imbalances and abuses of power evident in sexual harassment scandals, from tech to media, could accelerate change.
至于多元化,我乐观地认为,在某个时候,开明的年轻高管崛起将引发董事会突然转变态度。这种情况不会出现在2018年,尽管从科技到媒体行业的性骚扰丑闻所暴露的失衡和权力滥用问题,可能会加速这种变革。
Ultimately I expect these new leaders to start selecting from a broader pool of candidates and appoint direct reports from more varied backgrounds, defying those who use current imbalances to extrapolate gloomily that leadership parity between men and women is still decades off.
说到底,我预期这些新的领导人将开始从更广泛的候选人中选拔人员,并把不同背景的人任命为自己的直接下属,从而驳斥那些根据当前的失衡来外推还需数十年才能实现领导层男女平衡的悲观者。
Of course, these same new forces may also trigger a backlash and a reversion to old command-and-control ways of leading. The politicians who dominate the world stage are, depressingly, mostly cut from the old cloth, and the leadership challenges they face, from Brexit to North Korea, are particularly complex.
当然,这些新势力也可能引发反弹,使得指挥-控制的老派领导方式卷土重来。令人郁闷的是,主宰世界舞台的政治人物大多是老派的,而他们面临的领导力挑战——从英国退欧到朝鲜问题——尤为复杂。
US president Donald Trump’s zero-sum, Art-of-the-Deal approach to negotiation will give comfort to old-fashioned incumbents. I am hoping 2018 will provide an opportunity for positive, problem-solving new leaders to emerge. But change could stall if business chiefs, disheartened by the poor quality of political leadership, turn inwards instead.
美国总统唐纳德特朗普(Donald Trump)的零和博弈、“交易艺术”谈判方式,将给那些守旧的现任领导人带来安慰。我希望2018年将提供机会,让正气的、解决问题的新领导人涌现出来。但如果企业领导人因为政治领导层没水平而灰心,变得因循守旧,那么变革可能陷入停滞。
Andrew Hill is management editor
安德鲁希尔(Andrew Hill)是管理主编
Technology
科技
The Big Tech backlash will spread to technology industry employees in 2018, as many question whether the work they do really is saving the world.
2018年,反对科技巨擘(Big Tech)的声音将扩散到科技行业雇员群体,很多人质疑他们所做的工作是否真的在拯救世界。
Large technology companies were criticised throughout 2017 for becoming too powerful, using their size to dominate markets and not paying enough attention to how the tools they create can be used for ill.
2017年,人们指责大型科技公司太过强大、利用自身的规模主宰市场,而且不够关注他们所创造的工具如何被用来做恶。
The worries stretched from the global, such as Russian attempts to influence the US presidential election in 2016, to the local — concerns about users’ mental health and the drain on productivity as they drown in notifications and news feed posts.
人们的担忧涵盖了各个领域,从全球问题(比如俄罗斯试图影响2016年美国总统选举),到地方问题(比如担心用户淹没在通知和新闻推送中,造成心理健康问题和生产率损失)。
Next year, more tech workers will speak out, following former Facebook employees Sean Parker and Chamath Palihapitiya, who have condemned social media’s addictive properties.
继Facebook前员工肖恩帕克(Sean Parker)和查马斯帕里哈皮蒂亚(Chamath Palihapitiya)——二人谴责了社交媒体的成瘾性——之后,新的一年将有更多的科技行业工作者发声。
Others will look for ways to use tech to help people spend less time online. Tristan Harris, a former Google employee, is building a following for his Time Well Spent movement, tackling what it describes as the “digital attention crisis” by encouraging designers to understand the subtle psychological forces they control. Tim Kendall, formerly of Pinterest and Facebook, is reported by Recode to have plans for a start-up focused on fighting device addictions.
其他人将想方设法利用技术来帮助人们减少上网时间。谷歌(Google)前雇员特里斯坦哈里斯(Tristan Harris)发起的“时光莫虚度”(Time Well Spent)运动正在吸引人气,该运动鼓励设计者理解他们所控制的微妙的心理力量,以解决其所称的“数字注意力危机”。据Recode报道,曾经在Pinterest和Facebook工作的蒂姆肯德尔(Tim Kendall),计划成立一家专注于对抗设备上瘾的初创公司。
After a year of sexual harassment scandals that started in Silicon Valley and spread to just about every industry, women will try to capitalise on the momentum to push for permanent changes. And attention will focus on the plight of marginalised minorities, with so few black and Latino employees in the tech industry.
在经历了性骚扰丑闻频频曝光(从硅谷开始,蔓延至几乎所有行业)的一年后,女性将试图利用这一势头来推动永久性变革。鉴于科技行业的黑人和拉丁裔雇员少之又少,人们将关注被边缘化的少数族裔的困境。
Female founders in Silicon Valley will raise more money next year, as sexual harassment scandals have forced investors to rethink their habit of backing ventures founded by mainly young, white men. Some start-ups founded by men pursued by rumours of unsavoury pasts will not get funding, even if they are a good investment proposition.
随着性骚扰丑闻迫使投资者反思他们支持大多由年轻白人男性所创项目的习惯,新的一年硅谷的女性创始人将筹集更多资金。被不光彩传言缠身的一些男性创始人,其初创企业将无法再拿到融资,即使它们是很好的投资项目。
Inside larger technology companies, female employees will be hoping for signs of change in pay and promotions — but will also be on guard, as a men’s rights backlash brews in some corners of Silicon Valley.
在大型科技公司内部,女性雇员将希望看到加薪和升职方面发生变化的迹象——但是,随着男性权利在硅谷某些角落开始酝酿反击,她们也会保持警惕。
Hannah Kuchler is San Francisco correspondent
汉娜库赫勒(Hannah Kuchler)是驻旧金山记者
Banking
银行业
Big banks have more or less given up on trying to retain people with higher pay. Ever since the financial crisis it has been clear that if you want to get seriously rich, you go to Silicon Valley. Ruth Porat laid down a big marker in 2015, swapping an annual $13m or so salary as CFO of Morgan Stanley for a package at Google (now Alphabet) about five times bigger.
大银行已经或多或少地放弃了用高薪留住人才的尝试。自金融危机以来,有一件事很清楚:如果你想暴富,就得去硅谷。露丝波拉特(Ruth Porat)在2015年树立了一个标杆,她放弃了摩根士丹利(Morgan Stanley)首席财务官约1300万美元的年薪,跳槽谷歌(如今的Alphabet)获得五倍于此的薪酬。
Banks just cannot afford to keep up. At Goldman Sachs, for example, net revenues have dropped about a third since 2009, beaten down by structural shifts in trading and new rules crimping risk-taking. The bank tries to keep its pay ratio stable, so that means smaller total packages for the typical employee.
银行根本无力赶上这样的薪酬水平。例如,受交易结构性变化和旨在约束冒险行为的新规打击,自2009年以来高盛(Goldman Sachs)的净收入减少了约三分之一。该行试图让薪酬比保持稳定,这意味着发放给典型员工的总薪酬减少。
No wonder that banks have begun to get creative.
难怪各银行开始变得有创造力。
According to Oliver Cooke, a financial-services recruiter at Selby Jennings in New York, banks have been stressing what they call “internal mobility”, or redeploying staff from one department to another. If a bank facing sluggish conditions in debt trading, for example, can convert a trader to a risk analyst or a compliance officer, it can keep people interested — and it can save a bundle on severance.
据纽约Selby Jennings的金融服务业猎头奥利弗库克(Oliver Cooke)介绍,各银行如今注重它们所称的“内部流动”,即跨部门调职。例如,如果一家银行面临债券交易低迷的情况,它可以让交易员转岗成为风险分析师或合规官,此举可以保持员工的兴趣——同时节省一大笔遣散费。
They will get more creative in 2018, including on non-cash benefits. Bank of America, for example, has just introduced a programme allowing employees of the global banking and markets unit to take a sabbatical — on full pay — for up to six weeks in a year. There are conditions: people must have been with the bank for at least a decade, and can request the time once every five years, to a maximum of three. But in a memo circulated this week, seen by the Financial Times, chief operating officer Tom Montag urged eligible employees to consider it.
2018年它们会拿出更多创造力,包括在非现金效益上的创造力。例如,美国银行(Bank of America)刚刚引入了一项新计划,让全球银行业务和市场部门的员工休至多6周的长假。该计划是有条件的:员工必须在该行工作至少10年,每5年可以申请一次长假,最多享受3次。但根据英国《金融时报》看到的一份内部备忘录,首席运营官汤姆蒙塔格(Tom Montag)鼓励符合条件的员工考虑该计划。
“You can choose to spend the time however you like,” he wrote, suggesting people “go travelling, pursue a philanthropic project, spend quality time with family or simply take time out to recharge and refocus”.
“你们可以选择自己喜欢的休假方式,”他写道,并建议人们“旅行、参加慈善项目、与家人共享天伦之乐,或只是利用假期充电和调整心态”。
Perhaps it will not catch on in the cut-throat world of Wall Street. Some may see an extended absence as an admission that their jobs are expendable, and that colleagues can survive — and perhaps thrive — without them.
或许这种做法不会在竞争激烈的华尔街推广。有人可能会认为,长时间的休假相当于承认他们的工作可有可无,即使没有他们,同事们也可以生存,或许更能发挥才华。
But I expect other banks to follow suit. Any effort to keep good people fresh and engaged, without paying them more, should be up for consideration.
但我预计其他银行将效仿此举。在不涨薪的前提下,任何让优秀员工保持活力和积极性的办法都值得考虑。
Ben McLannahan is US banking editor
本麦克兰纳汗(Ben McLannahan)是美国银行业编辑
Law
法律
Technology is hardly a brand new phenomenon in the legal world — many firms now have partnerships with AI and machine-learning businesses, while some have set up their own “incubators” or invested in lawtech start-ups. But the trend has reached critical mass and will accelerate sharply in 2018.
技术在法律界并不是一个新现象——许多律所已经与人工智能和机器学习企业建立了合作伙伴关系,有些律所还建立了自己的“孵化器”,或者投资了法律科技初创公司。但这一趋势已经达到临界水平,并将在2018年急剧加速。
Lawyers are inherently cautious but most have realised that technology is crucial to crunching through the vast amount of information they handle. Without it, certain document heavy processes, such as disclosure and compliance, would be nearly impossible.
律师本质上是谨慎的,但他们中的大多数人已经认识到,技术是处理他们需要梳理的大量信息的关键。没有技术,披露和合规等一些需要处理很多文件的工作几乎不可能完成。
Bolder lawyers will start working with more “sci-fi” programs that claim to predict the outcomes of legal disputes before they have reached court, by analysing similar cases and past rulings, opposition tactics and win/lose statistics, the success rates of certain lawyers before certain judges, and so on.
较为大胆的律师将开始采用更为“科幻”的程序,这些程序宣称在上法庭前就能预测法律纠纷的结果——通过分析类似案件和过往裁决、反对方策略和胜诉/败诉统计数据、某些律师在某些法官面前的成功率等等。
Such insights are of particular interest to litigation funders, who back claimants in return for a cut of damages and who try to assess the likely outcomes of disputes before committing their money. But that may have to be 2019’s breakthrough, or probably beyond.
此类洞见尤其引起诉讼出资人的兴趣,后者支持原告以换取一定比例的损害赔偿金,并在出钱之前试图评估纠纷的可能结局。但是这种技术可能要到2019年乃至更遥远的未来才能突破。
People have been predicting consolidation in this very fragmented sector for years and there have indeed been big mergers recently. But there is little doubt that price pressures on City law firms are intensifying.
多年来,人们一直预测这个分散的行业将会整合,近期的确出现了大规模合并。但毫无疑问,伦敦金融城的律师事务所正在承受越来越大的价格压力。
Big-spending US firms are forcing their UK counterparts to increase salaries right the way from newly qualifieds to the top rainmakers — though that did not stop David Higgins, private equity star at Freshfields, from decamping to Kirkland & Ellis just before Christmas. Boutique specialists are luring clients away by offering faster, more focused services.
出手阔绰的美国公司正迫使英国同行提高从新入行者到顶级风云人物的薪资——尽管这并未阻止富尔德(Freshfields)的私募股权明星戴维希金斯(David Higgins)在圣诞节前夕跳槽到凯易律师事务所(Kirkland & Ellis)。精品专业律所通过提供更快、更专注的服务来吸引客户。
And in the UK, could this be the year that the big consultancies make proper inroads into the legal market Will other “alternative business structures” — aka purveyors of “Tesco law” — finally gain a toehold at the consumer end by offering fixed-fee services, putting work out to tender to loose networks of lawyers, or cranking up the legal chatbot for instant, affordable advice Someone has to bust this sector open for the sake of the average citizen.
在英国,今年可能是大型咨询公司正式进入法律市场的一年吗?其他的“另类业务结构”——或者说按照“乐购法”(Tesco law)成立的律所——将通过提供固定费用服务、把业务外包给松散的律师网络,或者推出法律聊天机器人提供即时而实惠的建议,而终于立足消费者市场吗?为了普通公民的利益,得有人突破这个领域。
Barney Thompson is legal correspondent
巴尼汤普森(Barney Thompson)是法律记者
The gig economy
零工经济(gig economy)
If 2017 was the year policymakers began to worry about the growth of the “precariat”, 2018 will be the year they try to do something about it.
如果说2017年是政策制定者们开始担心“无保障无产阶级”(precariat)人数增长的一年,那么2018年将是他们尝试为此做些什么的一年。
The rise of populism, even in countries such as the US and UK where plenty of people are in work, has made politicians realise that the quality of jobs is as important as their quantity.
民粹主义的兴起(即使在美国和英国这样的就业人数众多的国家也是如此)使得政客们认识到,就业的质量和数量同等重要。
They are beginning to fret far more about insecure contracts, precarious scheduling, low wages and new forms of work via online gig economy platforms such as Uber. The OECD, the influential Paris-based club for rich countries, will publish a “jobs strategy” in 2018 that is likely to put much more emphasis on the quality and inclusiveness of work.
他们开始对无保障合同、不稳定的工作时间安排、微薄的工资以及依托优步(Uber)等在线零工经济平台的新形态工作感到忧心忡忡。总部位于巴黎的有影响力的富国俱乐部——经济合作与发展组织(OECD)将于2018年发布《就业战略》,其中可能会更加强调工作的质量和包容性。
But what will politicians actually do While President Trump is focused on bringing back traditional manufacturing jobs to America, different US states are experimenting with other policies to help low-paid precarious workers. These range from sharply higher minimum wages to new rules to stop employers changing staff schedules at the last minute.
但是政客们究竟会做什么呢?虽然特朗普总统致力于让传统制造业岗位回流美国,但美国好几个州正在试验其他政策来帮助无保障的低收入工人。这些政策各有不同,既有大幅提高最低工资标准的措施,也有阻止雇主在最后一刻调整员工时间表的新规。
Enthusiastic supporters of the idea of a “universal basic income” for all citizens, meanwhile, will look to Finland where a trial is now well under way. In France, Emmanuel Macron will try to tread a delicate line in 2018 as he reforms the labour market, hoping to inject flexibility without increasing insecurity or incensing the unions.
与此同时,“全民基本收入”理念的热心支持者将会关注芬兰正在进行的一个试点。在法国,埃马纽埃尔马克龙(Emmanuel Macron)将在2018年审慎拿捏,改革劳动力市场,希望在不加大工人不安全感或激怒工会的情况下注入灵活性。
As for the fortunes of the gig economy, the UK will be a key country to watch. The government is due to respond to an independent review into whether British law is keeping up with this new trend. Bold policy action — either in favour or against online labour platforms — now seems less likely given the fragility of the government and the time-consuming nature of Brexit.
就零工经济的命运来说,英国将是一个值得关注的关键国家。英国政府将对一份关于英国法律是否跟得上这一新趋势的独立评估做出回应。考虑到政府的脆弱性和耗时的英国退欧进程,现在似乎不太可能出台大胆的政策行动——无论是支持还是反对在线劳动力平台。
But the UK courts may land a heavy blow on ride-hailing app Uber. In 2017, the California-based company failed to persuade an appeal judge that two of its London drivers are independent contractors. In 2018, the test case will go to the Court of Appeal and possibly to the Supreme Court. If Uber loses the case and is told to assume the responsibilities of an employer, the implications will ripple far and wide.
但英国法庭可能会沉重打击优步叫车应用。2017年,总部位于加州的该公司未能让上诉法官相信,其两名伦敦司机是独立的合同工。2018年,这个判例案件将会打到上诉法院,而且还可能打到最高法院。如果优步败诉,被要求承担起雇主的责任,那将会产生深远的影响。
Sarah O’Connor is employment correspondent
莎拉奥康纳(Sarah O'Connor)是就业记者
Accounting and consultancy
会计和咨询业
Management consultancies pride themselves on being expert advisers on “change” — from helping clients integrate after mergers, to keeping them at the cutting edge of new technology. Several of the world’s largest consultancies will have to make use of their own advice in 2018 as they prepare for leadership changes — the first in years — that will have significant ramifications for their workforce.
管理咨询公司自豪地把自己视为针对“变化”提供咨询的专家,从帮助客户在并购后实现整合,到帮助客户置身于新技术的前沿。2018年,世界上最大的一些咨询机构将不得不好好采用自己的建议,因为它们将迎来多年来首次领导层变动,这将对他们的员工队伍具有重大潜在影响。
This includes McKinsey, the consultancy that kick-started its secretive leadership election process in October with a gathering of more than 500 senior partners at the Grosvenor House Hotel in London. The next stage involves the firm’s 550 senior partners voting on a shortlist of candidates to replace Dominic Barton — the incumbent since 2009 — in January, followed by a run-off between the two most popular candidates in February.
这其中包括麦肯锡(McKinsey)。去年10月,这家咨询机构的500多名高级合伙人汇聚伦敦格罗夫纳豪斯酒店(Grosvenor House Hotel),启动了神神秘秘的领导层选举程序。下一阶段涉及该公司550名高级合伙人于1月对鲍达民(Dominic Barton)继任者的候选名单进行投票,之后在2月份对两名人气最高的候选人进行第二轮投票。鲍达民自2009年起执掌麦肯锡。
The winner will be announced in March, and is expected to have a significant impact on the direction of the consultancy. Some insiders favour candidates with expertise in fast-growing areas such as data analytics, whereas others want a traditionalist who will protect the firm’s brand.
麦肯锡将于3月宣布当选者,预计此人将对麦肯锡的发展方向产生重大影响。一些内部人士倾向于那些在快速增长领域(比如数据分析)具备专长的候选人,而其他人想要一位可以维护公司品牌的传统主义者。
Change is also under way at Bain & Company, which announced in November that Manny Maceda will become its global leader in March, the first of Asian heritage, and taking the reins of the Boston-based consultancy from Bob Bechek. Experts say Mr Maceda could be instrumental in helping the firm carve out new areas of expertise and edge away from its reputation as a generalist provider.
贝恩公司(Bain & Company)也正处于变革之中,去年11月该公司宣布曼尼马塞达(Manny Maceda)将于2018年3月成为其全球领导人,从鲍勃博切克(Bob Bechek)手中接管这家总部位于波士顿的咨询机构;马塞达将是该公司首位亚洲血统的掌门人。专家们表示,马塞达可能推动该公司开拓新的专长领域,并摆脱业务多而不精的名声。
The 54-year-old has already said he wants Bain to be recognised as a go-to provider of digital expertise. The question is whether this will be achieved through acquisitions, poaching teams or retraining the existing workforce.
54岁的马塞达已经表示,他希望贝恩被公认为数字专长的首选提供商。问题是,他会通过何种方式来实现这一目标——收购、挖人,或是对现有员工进行再培训?
Chicago-based rival AT Kearney is also preparing for a change at the top, with a vote to replace Johan Aurik, who has already served the maximum two terms as managing partner, due to take place in the first quarter of 2018. His replacement will be expected to focus on how to pull AT Kearney out of the ranks of mid-sized players.
总部位于芝加哥的竞争对手科尔尼(AT Kearney)也在为领导层变动做准备,计划于2018年第一季度投票决定接替约翰奥利格(Johan Aurik)的人选。管理合伙人最多担任两个任期,而奥利格已经期满。预计他的继任者将专注于让科尔尼做大,摆脱中等规模参与者之列。
Boston Consulting Group could also be poised to make a change given its managing partner, Richard Lesser, is due to come to the end of his second term in October. His future is unclear, however, as the firm declined to comment on its election process or how many terms its leader can serve.
考虑到波士顿咨询集团(Boston Consulting Group)管理合伙人理查德莱塞(Richard Lesser)的第二任期将于10月结束,该公司可能也将引来变化。然而,由于该公司拒绝就其选举流程及领导人最多可以有几个任期置评,莱塞的未来尚不明确。
The leadership changes across the industry will be of particular interest to female consulting professionals, given none of these firms have ever been run by a woman. Consulting firms are vocal proponents of the business case for improved gender diversity at the top of large companies. It will be interesting to see if any of them decide to practice what they preach.
鉴于这些公司都从未有过女性掌门人,整个咨询行业的领导层变动将尤其引起女性咨询专业人员的兴趣。咨询公司在口头上支持大企业改善领导层性别多元化的商业理由。让我们拭目以待,看看这些公司会不会践行自己推崇的观念。
Madison Marriage is accounting and tax correspondent
麦迪逊马里奇(Madison Marriage)是会计和税收事务记者
Start-ups
初创公司
The future is always bright if you are an entrepreneur, and the opportunities to create new ventures based on the digitisation of age-old services has a long way to run.
如果你是一名创业家,那么未来永远是光明的,基于传统服务的数字化来创立新企业的机会简直取之不尽。
The education sector has remained largely unchanged by online service delivery — but could be transformed dramatically in 2018.
教育行业基本上还未受到在线服务交付的影响——但可能会在2018年经历戏剧性的变化。
Despite the promise of downloadable courses, teaching for officially recognised qualifications continues to be a classroom-based activity undertaken in the real world. Start-ups have taken the attitude that if they cannot beat the universities and colleges at their own game with new methods of delivery, they should join them in partnerships. As a result, they have been busy getting examining boards to endorse their online courses so that they can count towards a bachelor’s or master’s qualification.
尽管可以下载的课程具有较好前景,但在现实世界,得到官方承认的学历仍然基于课堂教学活动。初创公司采取了这样一种态度:如果他们无法以新的服务交付方式在高校的地盘上击败它们,那就应该与之建立合作伙伴关系。其结果是,他们忙着争取考试委员会核准他们的在线课程,使其可以算作学士或硕士学位资格的一部分。
This has given “edtech” start-ups, such as Silicon Valley-based Coursera and London-based FutureLearn, a foothold in the market. Expect them to continue this year, perhaps with a merger with a bricks-and-mortar higher education establishment.
这使得“教育科技”初创公司(比如硅谷的Coursera和伦敦的FutureLearn)在市场上有了立足点。预计它们在2018年将继续这种模式,或许会与某个实体高等教育机构合并。
At tech start-up conferences, such as Slush in Helsinki in December, everyone was talking about experiences. The coming year is likely to see a wider adoption of virtual reality, which places the user in a digitally enhanced environment, and augmented reality, which overlays digital information on to the real world, creating new digital businesses.
在科技初创公司大会上(比如去年12月在赫尔辛基举办的Slush),各方都在讨论体验。未来一年可能会看到更广泛地采用虚拟实境(VR,让用户置身于数字化强化的环境中)和强化实境(AR,把数字信息叠加到现实世界中)来创建新的数字企业。
AR could be the bigger opportunity after Apple’s Tim Cook gave the technology his backing — it was included in Apple’s latest operating system and its iPhone X device.
在苹果(Apple)的蒂姆库克(Tim Cook)支持AR后,该技术可能是更大的机遇。苹果最新操作系统及新款手机iPhone X纳入了AR技术。
2018年各行业职场趋势.jpgThe fastest growing start-ups tend to be global in their outlook. The immigration restrictions already imposed by President Trump in the US and those under consideration as part of the UK’s separation from the EU are likely to be a hindrance in the coming year for hiring.
发展最迅速的初创公司往往具有全球化的视野。未来一年,美国总统特朗普已经实施的移民限制,以及英国作为退欧的一部分而在考虑的限制措施,可能会对企业招聘形成障碍。
The US and UK’s losses will be Germany, Sweden and Canada’s gain, as founders set up in the cosmopolitan hubs of Berlin, Stockholm and Toronto, which have spent the past year amplifying the message that they are open for business.
美英所失将是德国、瑞典和加拿大之获,创始人们将在柏林、斯德哥尔摩和多伦多等国际大都市枢纽创办新公司。这些大都市在过去一年都在强化对商业开放的信号。
The real disrupter is blockchain, the digital ledger for cryptocurrencies such as bitcoin, which has fuelled the creation of hundreds of new businesses in recent years, mostly enabling the buying and selling of digital money and offering money transfer services.
真正具有颠覆性的是区块链(比特币等加密货币的数字帐簿),该技术近年催生了数百家新企业,其业务大多是支持数字货币的买卖,并提供转账服务。
Bitcoin’s value was on a sharp upward curve at the end of 2017. There is growing pressure on regulators to rein in the cryptocurrency sector, but bitcoin continues to flourish. This is not a market for the faint-hearted, however, as jobs will be created and lost.
2017年底,比特币的价值呈现大幅上涨趋势。监管部门受到越来越大的压力,要求他们约束加密货币领域,但比特币势头不减。然而,这不是胆小鬼的市场,而且既会创造就业,也可能让你失业。
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